La crisis de liderazgo de Europa

BRUSELAS – La crisis financiera global ya ha puesto de manifiesto las fortalezas y las debilidades de la Unión Europea. Si no hubiera sido por el euro, las ondas expansivas generadas por la crisis de septiembre y octubre se habrían propagado a los mercados monetarios, creando tensiones que habrían hecho retroceder décadas la integración política y económica de Europa, tal vez poniendo en peligro el proyecto todo.

Desde una perspectiva mucho menos positiva, los estados miembro de la UE demostraron lentitud para actuar en concierto. Al principio fue la Comisión Europea la que recibió críticas por su lentitud a la hora de formular propuestas para aunar a los gobiernos nacionales y sus estrategas políticos. Ahora son los estados miembro lo que están resistiendo la necesidad urgente de una respuesta coordinada a nivel de la UE a la crisis que se agrava.

La velocidad y la gravedad de la desaceleración económica son mucho mayores que en cualquiera de las crisis de posguerra de los últimos 60 años. En Europa, en términos generales, no le prestamos atención a las señales de advertencia de la crisis de las hipotecas de alto riesgo de Estados Unidos que estalló a fines del verano (boreal) de 2007, y en consecuencia no estábamos preparados cuando la próxima fase de la crisis también absorbió a los bancos europeos. La lección que debe extraerse es que la UE tiene que actuar con más celeridad y con una mayor determinación de lo que lo hizo hasta el momento.

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