Building with European Union flags

Una respuesta a la polarización política de Europa

PARÍS – En Europa, el 2015 comenzó con la victoria electoral del partido de izquierda Syriza en Grecia. Terminó con otras tres elecciones que dan fe de una creciente polarización política. En Portugal, el Partido Socialista formó una alianza con sus ex archienemigos, los comunistas. En Polonia, el partido nacionalista Ley y Justicia (PiS, por su sigla en inglés) ganó el respaldo suficiente como para gobernar solo. Y en España, el surgimiento de Podemos, otro partido nuevo de izquierda, ha puesto fin a la hegemonía tradicional del Partido Socialista de los Trabajadores de centroizquierda y del Partido Popular de centro derecha. (En Francia, por otra parte, el Frente Nacional de extrema derecha, liderado por Marine Le Pen, demostró su fuerza en la primera vuelta de las elecciones regionales de diciembre, aunque finalmente no resultó ganador).

El mensaje es ineludible: cada vez más, los votantes están profundamente insatisfechos con los partidos tradicionales y están dispuestos a darle una oportunidad a aquellos que proponen alternativas radicales. Les están brindado apoyo a partidos que, aunque muy diferentes entre sí, culpan sin excepción a la Unión Europea por el estado lamentable de las economías y mercados laborales de sus países.

Sin duda, hoy en día la radicalización no se limita a Europa. Como sostuve en otras ocasiones, el candidato presidencial norteamericano Donald Trump le debe su ascenso a muchos de los mismos factores que están impulsando la creciente popularidad de Le Pen. Lo que resulta particularmente problemático en la UE es el choque entre la política radical y la gobernancia tradicional.

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