Building with European Union flags

La risposta alla polarizzazione politica in Europa

PARIGI – In Europa il 2015 è iniziato con la vittoria delle elezioni in Grecia del partito di estrema sinistra Syriza. L’anno è poi finito con altre tre elezioni che hanno confermato un crescente processo di polarizzazione politica. In Portogallo il Partito socialista ha formato un’alleanza con il suo antico nemico: i comunisti. In Polonia il partito nazionalista “Diritto e Giustizia” (PiS) ha ottenuto un numero sufficiente di voti da poter governare da solo, mentre in Spagna l’ascesa di Podemos, un altro partito di estrema sinistra, ha messo fine alla tradizionale egemonia del Partito socialista operaio nel centro sinistra e del Partito popolare nel centro destra. (In Francia, inoltre, il partito di estrema destra, il Fronte Nazionale, guidato da Marine Le Pen, ha dimostrato la sua forza al primo turno delle elezioni regionali di dicembre in Francia anche se non è poi riuscito a vincere alcuna regione).

E’ impossibile non cogliere il chiaro messaggio, ovvero che gli elettori sono profondamente scontenti dei partiti tradizionali e vogliono dare una possibilità a chi propone delle alternative radicali. Danno sostegno a partiti che, pur diversi l’uno dall’altro, colpevolizzano l’Unione europea per lo stato in cui versano le economie e i mercati del lavoro del proprio paese.

Di certo oggi il fenomeno della radicalizzazione non si limita all’Europa. Come ho già sostenuto in altri articoli il candidato alle elezioni presidenziali degli Stati Uniti, Donald Trump, deve la sua ascesa agli stessi numerosi fattori che stanno contribuendo ad aumentare la popolarità di Marine le Pen. Ciò che è particolarmente problematico nell’UE è lo scontro tra le politiche radicali e la governance tradizionale.

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