Paul Lachine

Europa necesita un Plan B

NUEVA YORK – La Unión Europea fue creada mediante lo que Karl Popper llamó ingeniería social gradual. Un grupo de hombres de estado con mentalidad previsora, inspirado por la visión de unos Estados Unidos de Europa, reconoció que este ideal se podía abordar solo en forma gradual, fijándose objetivos limitados, movilizando la voluntad política necesaria para lograrlos, y firmando tratados que requiriesen a los estados renunciar a su soberanía solo en la medida políticamente viable. Así es como la Comunidad del Carbón y del Acero de posguerra se transformó en la Unión Europea: un paso la vez, sabiendo que cada paso era incompleto y necesitaría avances adicionales a su debido tiempo.

Los arquitectos de la Unión Europea generaron la voluntad política necesaria apoyándose en la memoria de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, la amenaza de la Unión Soviética, y los beneficios económicos de una mayor integración. El proceso se alimentó de su propio éxito y, con el desplome de la Unión Soviética, recibió un poderoso empuje gracias a la perspectiva de la reunificación alemana.

Alemania aceptó que solo podía reunificarse en el contexto de una unificación europea mayor, y que estaba dispuesta a pagar el precio. Con el esfuerzo extra de los alemanes para reconciliar los intereses nacionales en conflicto, el proceso de integración europea alcanzó su apogeo con el tratado de Maastricht y la introducción del euro.

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