أوروبا في صندوق النقد الدولي

بروكسل ـ إن زعماء أوروبا لا يملون ولا يكلون أبداً من تذكير ناخبيهم، على نحو أشبه بترديد الشعارات، بأن بلدان الأسواق الناشئة الرئيسية تعمل الآن على قلب النظام الاقتصادي العالمي القائم. ولكن حين يتعلق الأمر بالاعتراف بهذا الواقع في المؤسسات المالية الدولية، فإن هؤلاء الزعماء يتحدثون بنبرة مختلفة. ويصدق هذا بشكل خاص على منطقة اليورو.

إن منطقة اليورو على وضعها الحالي غير ممثلة في المؤسسات المالية الدولية ككيان قائم بذاته. فبلدان منطقة اليورو الاثني عشر ممثلة في مجلس إدارة صندوق النقد الدولي عبر ست "دوائر" أو مجموعات من الدول. فالدولتان الأكبر حجماً، ألمانيا وفرنسا، لدى كل منهما دائرة خاصة. أما بقية بلدان منطقة اليورو العشرة فإنها جزء من أربع دوائر أخرى على رأسها بلجيكا، وهولندا، وأسبانيا، وإيطاليا. ومع ذلك فإن هذه الدوائر الأربع تشتمل أيضاً على أكثر من عشرين دولة، أغلبها لا تنتمي حتى لعضوية الاتحاد الأوروبي.

وبإضافة الدائرتين الاسكندنافية والبريطانية، يصبح الاتحاد الأوروبي ممثلاً بثمانية مقاعد في المجلس التنفيذي لصندوق النقد الدولي. وبالنظر إلى أن النظام الأساسي لصندوق النقد الدولي ينص على أن مجلس إدارته يتألف من عشرين عضواً فقط، فهذا يعني أن 40% من المديرين التنفيذيين لصندوق النقد الدولي أوروبيون، وأن ثلث هؤلاء المديرين ينتمون إلى منطقة اليورو.

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