Europa en el asiento de atrás

MADRID – La reforma de la gobernanza económica global sigue siendo un asunto prioritario pendiente entre los encargados del diseño de políticas, pero no hay mucha evidencia de que la Unión Europea haya desarrollado un enfoque de futuro o coherente hacia las nuevas formas que el G-20 ha prometido establecer.

El G-20, que tendrá su próxima cumbre en Corea del Sur en noviembre, garantizó que la cooperación multilateral y la interdependencia sacarían al mundo de la crisis. Sin embargo, gran parte de las políticas europeas no se adaptan bien al espíritu de esos compromisos. Puede que la UE no haya impuesto cuotas y aranceles excesivos, pero al interior ha surgido un poderoso proteccionismo en la forma de subsidios, rescates, mandamientos judiciales para comprar los productos nacionales y nuevas restricciones a la inversión extranjera directa. Global Trade Alert, un organismo de supervisión independiente, ha identificado más de 300 nuevas medidas proteccionistas que han introducido los miembros del G-20.

Desde que el G-20 se comprometió el año pasado a realizar avances para concluir la Ronda de Doha de negociaciones comerciales mundiales, la UE prácticamente no ha hecho nada para alcanzar este objetivo. Se negó a introducir medidas encaminadas a mejorar las normas de la OCDE para liberar los flujos de inversión y la nueva Comisión Europea, dirigida por José Manuel Barroso, tiene menos miembros pro-mercado que durante su primer mandato. Gran parte de los comisarios ahora parecen ser partidarios de la flexibilización de  las normas de ayuda estatal para financiar las investigaciones en el sector de la investigación y desarrollo. Entonces, aunque no se observa una desarticulación del Mercado Único, ciertamente no se están haciendo avances.

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