syrian migrants in serbia Elena Geroska/ZumaPress

Les migrations au-delà de l'état de crise

MADRID – Depuis sept ans, l'Europe évolue dans un état de crise quasi-permanent. D'Ukraine jusqu'en Grèce, les différents événements voient le continent échapper à un premier danger pour finalement en rencontrer un autre, le tout sur fond de réunions au sommet, de déclarations et autres acrobaties politiques. Voici désormais qu'une crise des migrations – qui ne devrait pas être résolue dans un avenir proche – vient solliciter l'attention de l'Union européenne. Sa particularité réside en ce que l'Europe, si elle entend répondre efficacement au problème, devra raisonner au-delà de la simple gestion de crise, afin de comprendre à la fois le problème auquel elle se trouve confrontée, et les objectifs qu'elle désire atteindre.

La question des migrations mérite indiscutablement toute l'attention de l'UE. Non seulement le nombre de migrants rejoignant l'Europe ne cesse-t-il de battre tous les records d'un mois à l'autre, mais les principaux lieux de pénétration se font également changeants. Dans le même temps, les lignes de distinction déjà floues entre demandeurs d'asile, réfugiés, personnes déplacées, et migrants purement économiques, deviennent de plus en plus difficile à entrevoir.  

Les conditions périlleuses dans lesquelles s'effectue le passage des migrants représentent une crise humanitaire majeure. Depuis le début de l'année, près de 2 500 personnes ont perdu la vie en tentant de traverser la Méditerranée, sans parler de scènes insoutenables telles que la découverte de 71 corps en état de décomposition, abandonnés dans un poids lourd en Autriche. Pendant ce temps, plusieurs milliers d'autres languissent dans des camps de fortune, ne bénéficiant que d'une assistance minime, voir inexistante.

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