Marchés de l’énergie ou bonne gouvernance de l’énergie ?

MADRID – Ce mois-ci, l’Agence internationale de l’énergie (AIE) rendra son rapport annuel, Perspectives énergétiques mondiales, qui fait autorité au plan international et qui confirmera que nous ne sommes pas sur la bonne voie pour limiter le réchauffement climatique. Si les tendances actuelles de la production énergétique se poursuivent, les températures moyennes auront augmenté de plus de 2° en 2100, par rapport à 1990, mettant en péril de manière irréversible les conditions de la vie humaine sur notre planète.

D’autres crises, plus immédiates, monopolisent presque complètement l’attention de la communauté internationale, faisant oublier aux gouvernements et aux citoyens les défis énergétiques que nous devons encore relever. Aux Etats-Unis, aucun débat sur l’énergie n’a eu lieu au niveau fédéral depuis longtemps ; l’Union européenne est aux prises avec un cataclysme financier ; et les pays émergents veulent préserver une croissance économique rapide pour sortir des millions de personnes de la pauvreté. Dans ce contexte, la prochaine réunion de la Convention-cadre des Nations unies sur les changements climatiques (CCNUCC), qui se tiendra à la fin novembre à Durban, en Afrique du Sud, passe complètement inaperçue.

L’énergie est pourtant une question fondamentale pour l’humanité, non seulement à cause de ses externalités potentiellement négatives, mais également en raison de sa dimension économique : les pays occidentaux consacrent entre 8 et 10 pour cent de leur PIB à l’énergie, et les pays en développement, le double ou le triple de ce montant. Pour cette raison, un système de gouvernance de l’énergie est nécessaire.

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