能源市场还是能源治理?

马德里——本月,国际能源署将发布年度报告,即权威的《世界能源展望》,这份报告将显示,我们并没有走在缓解全球变暖的正途上。如果能源生产的当前趋势继续下去,那么,到2100年,地球平均温度将比1900年提高2℃,对地球和人类生存环境造成不可逆的伤害。

眼下,其他更为紧迫的危机正在让世界疲于奔命,政府和人民的注意力并不在仍然困扰着我们的能源挑战上。在美国,联邦级别的讨论中不见能源问题踪影已经有很长一段时间了;欧盟正在金融飓风中苦苦挣扎;而新兴国家希望保持快速经济增长从而将数百万人带出贫困状态。在这样的环境下,将于11月在南非德班举行的新一届联合国气候变化框架会议(UNFCCC)几乎没有受到任何关注。

但能源乃是人类生存的基本问题,这不仅是因为它具有潜在的负外部性,也因为它具有经济上的关联性:西方国家的GDP中有8—10%花在了能源上,而发展中国家的这一比重是发达国家的两倍甚至三倍。因此,我们需要一个能源治理体系。

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