La independencia energética en un mundo interdependiente

CAMBRIDGE – Cuando el Presidente Richard Nixon proclamó, a comienzos del decenio de 1970, que quería garantizar la independencia energética nacional, los Estados Unidos importaban la cuarta parte de su petróleo. Al final del decenio, después de un embargo del petróleo árabe y de la revolución iraní, la producción nacional estaba reduciéndose, los americanos estaban importando la mitad del petróleo que necesitaban a un precio quince veces mayor y estaba generalizada la opinión de que el país estaba quedándose sin gas natural.

Las crisis energéticas contribuyeron a una combinación letal de estancamiento del crecimiento económico e inflación y todos los presidentes de los EE.UU. posteriores a Nixon han proclamado igualmente la independencia energética como objetivo, pero pocas persones se han tomado en serio esas promesas.

Actualmente, los expertos en energía ya no se burlan. Según la Administración de Información Energética, al final de este decenio casi la mitad del crudo que consumen los Estados Unidos será de producción nacional, mientras que el 82 por ciento procederá del lado estadounidense del Atlántico. Philip Verleger, respetado analista energético, sostiene que en 2023, quincuagésimo aniversario del “proyecto de independencia” de Nixon, los EE.UU. serán energéticamente independientes, en el sentido de que exportarán más energía que la que importarán.

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