Indian day laborers around fire Andrew Caballero-Reynolds/AFP/Getty Images

إعادة إشعال شرارة النمو في الاقتصادات الناشئة

هونج كونج ــ ليس سِرا أن الاقتصادات الناشئة تواجه تحديات بالغة الخطورة، والتي تسببت في تقويض اقتصادها الذي كان متفجرا بالنشاط ذات يوم وإضعاف آفاق التنمية لديها. وسوف تعتمد عودتها إلى مسار التقارب مع الاقتصادات المتقدمة إلى حد كبير على الكيفية التي تتعامل بها مع البيئة الاقتصادية المتزايدة التعقيد.

بطبيعة الحال، لم يكن مسار التنمية في هذه الاقتصادات بسيطا أو سلسا قَط. ولكن طوال القسم الأعظم من فترة ما بعد الحرب العالمية الثانية، وحتى عشر سنوات مضت، كان المسار واضحا نسبيا. إذ كان لزاما على الدول فتح اقتصاداتها بوتيرة معقولة؛ والاستفادة من التكنولوجيا العالمية والطلب العالمي؛ والتخصص في القطاعات القابلة للتداول؛ والسعي إلى زيادة الاستثمارات بشكل كبير (نحو 30% من الناتج المحلي الإجمالي)؛ وتشجيع الاستثمار المباشر الأجنبي، مع اتخاذ التدابير المناسبة لنقل المعرفة.

وطوال هذه العملية، أدركت الاقتصادات الناشئة أهمية السماح لآليات السوق بالعمل، وضمان حقوق الملكية، والحفاظ على استقرار الاقتصاد الكلي والاستقرار المالي. ولعل الأمر الأكثر أهمية أن هذه الاقتصادات كانت تعلم أنها مضطرة إلى التركيز على توليد فرص العمل وخاصة في المناطق الحضرية وقطاعات التحديث، وعلى الشمولية بشكل أكثر عموما.

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