Die neue Weltordnung der Wirtschaftswissenschaftler

In den meisten Zweigen der Wirtschaftswissenschaften verlässt man sich auf Konzepte, die am Anfang des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts von dem britischen Ökonomen Alfred Marshall festgelegt wurden, der sagte, dass „die Natur keine Sprünge macht“. Doch irritiert uns Ökonomen in zunehmendem Maße die offensichtliche Unzulänglichkeit des neo-marshallschen Regelwerks, das wir uns zurechtgelegt haben, um unsere Welt zu erklären.

Die zentrale Behauptung dieses Regelwerks lautet, dass wir darauf vertrauen sollten, dass der Markt die Probleme lösen wird, die wir ihm stellen, und dass wir nicht erwarten sollten, dass kleine (oder sogar große) Änderungen riesige Auswirkungen hätten. Ein technologischer Sprung, der die Löhne der Qualifizierten und Gebildeten steigen lässt, wird andere dazu veranlassen, sich zu qualifizieren und zu bilden, und dadurch einen Ausgleich schaffen, so dass es keine zu großen Ungleichheiten gibt.

Ein Land, in dem die Arbeitsproduktivität niedrig ist, wird also zu einem attraktiven Gebiet für ausländische Direktinvestitionen, und die daraus resultierende Steigerung der Kapitalintensität steigert die Produktivität. Egal, wo man mit Marshalls Regelwerk auch hinschaut, man sieht, wie das wirtschaftliche Gleichgewicht alles zurück ins Lot bringt, indem die Auswirkungen von Schocks und Störungen kompensiert und abgeschwächt werden.

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