Le Nouvel ordre mondial des économistes

La plupart des économistes académiques s’appuient sur les concepts énoncés au début du vingtième siècle par l’économiste britannique Alfred Marshall, qui disait que « la nature ne fait pas de bond ». Nous nous trouvons pourtant, nous les économistes, de plus en plus perturbés par l’incapacité apparente des outils marshalliens que nous avons développés à expliquer le monde.

L’angle principal de ces outils est d’exiger de faire confiance aux marchés pour résoudre les problèmes que nous créons et de ne pas s’attendre à ce que de petits (et même de gros) changements aient des effets importants. L’avancée technologique qui permettra d’augmenter les salaires des populations éduquées et formées incitera d’autres couches de la population à se former et s’éduquer, restaurant ainsi l’équilibre de sorte que l’inégalité ne soit pas trop importante.

Ainsi, un pays où la productivité du travail est faible deviendra un lieu attrayant pour l’investissement étranger direct et l’augmentation qui en résultera dans le rapport capital-travail relèvera la productivité. Où que l’on regarde, quand on utilise les outils marshalliens, on voit les équilibres économiques remettre les choses en place et revenir à la normale en compensant et atténuant les effets des chocs et des perturbations.

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