La economía y sus críticos

MUNICH – Actualmente hay mucho que criticar a la economía. Por ejemplo, la disciplina casi no se ocupa de los asuntos políticos, pero se concentra demasiado en atormentar a los estudiantes con matemáticas. No obstante, gran parte de las críticas que se hacen a la profesión se basan en malentendidos e ignorancia.

Pensemos en el concepto de Adam Smith de la “mano invisible”, que implica que el equilibrio del mercado es eficiente si prevalece la competencia perfecta y si existen derechos de propiedad bien definidos. A diferencia de lo que muchos críticos  suponen, los economistas convencionales no asumen que estas condiciones ideales están siempre presentes. Al contrario, los economistas tienden a usar estas condiciones como punto de referencia para analizar las fallas del mercado. Como sabuesos, buscan en la economía dichas fallas y ponderan cómo pueden corregirse mediante una intervención inteligente del Estado.

En este sentido, los economistas son como médicos, que deben saber cómo es un cuerpo sano antes de diagnosticar una enfermedad y recetar medicamento. Un buen médico no interviene arbitrariamente en los procesos del cuerpo, sino solo en casos donde hay evidencia objetiva de una enfermedad y un tratamiento efectivo se puede recomendar.

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