Sustainable growth model city Amir Jina/Flickr

Il complesso dilemma della crescita

BERKELEY – Il mondo si trova di fronte a un serio dilemma. Una crescita economica rapida, come quella che ha caratterizzato gli ultimi cinquant'anni, è essenziale per sostenere lo sviluppo ma, d'altro canto, essa può avere oggi gravi conseguenze negative, specialmente per l'ambiente. Come si possono conciliare gli imperativi della crescita e dello sviluppo con la necessità di garantirne la sostenibilità?

La straordinaria crescita del reddito pro capite nel corso degli ultimi vent'anni ha affrancato oltre un miliardo di persone da una condizione di povertà estrema. Nei paesi in via di sviluppo, l'aspettativa di vita è cresciuta di vent'anni dalla metà degli anni '70, mentre il tasso di analfabetismo tra gli adulti si è quasi dimezzato negli ultimi trent'anni.

Questa rapida crescita economica, però, ha sottoposto l'ambiente a una pesante pressione. Essa, inoltre, è stata accompagnata da un aumento della disuguaglianza sul fronte del reddito, che ora ha raggiunti massimi storici in molti paesi (pur se tra i paesi questo divario è diminuito). Considerato ciò, si potrebbe concludere che un rallentamento della crescita gioverebbe al pianeta.

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