Sustainable growth model city Amir Jina/Flickr

Das Wachstumsrätsel

BERKELEY – Die Welt steht vor einem großen Dilemma. Obwohl rasches Wirtschaftswachstum, wie es in den letzten 50 Jahren realisiert wurde, von entscheidender Bedeutung zur Förderung der Entwicklung ist, wissen wir mittlerweile auch, dass dieses Wachstum mit erheblichen negativen Folgen, insbesondere für die Umwelt, verbunden ist. Wie kann es uns gelingen, die Erfordernisse von Wachstum und Entwicklung mit der notwendigen Nachhaltigkeit in Einklang zu bringen?

Aufgrund des beispiellosen Pro-Kopf-Einkommenswachstums in den letzten 20 Jahren konnten über eine Milliarde Menschen der extremen Armut entkommen. In den Entwicklungsländern ist die Lebenserwartung seit Mitte der 1970er Jahre um 20 Jahre gestiegen und die Analphabetenrate hat sich in den letzten 30 Jahren beinahe halbiert.

Allerdings stellte dieses rasche Wirtschaftswachstum eine enorme Belastung für die Umwelt dar. Außerdem war es von zunehmender Einkommensungleichheit begleitet, die mittlerweile innerhalb vieler Länder historische Höchststände erreicht hat (obwohl sie im Ländervergleich rückläufige Werte aufweist). Angesichts dieser Fakten könnte man argumentieren, dass langsameres Wachstum für die Welt vorteilhaft wäre.

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