民众可以享受到的发展

纽约——自从10年前西非地区的残酷内战结束后,现在的埃博拉疫情夺走生命、摧毁社区、催生孤儿的速度可谓史无前例。在利比亚,60%的市场目前已陷入瘫痪;在塞拉利昂,10,000名艾滋病毒感染者中仅有五分之一仍在接受抗逆转录病毒治疗;几内亚政府报告危机造成高达2.2亿美元的资金缺口。如果疫情无法迅速得到扭转,利比里亚和塞拉利昂恢复和平和几内亚民主转型开始后所取得的多数经济和社会成果均有可能毁于一旦。

上述三个国家目前局势既分裂又脆弱,并且在这场危机中很容易出现震荡。从更广义的角度看,目前这场地区危机理应激发人们对世界如何支持并推进发展这一课题的思考。

上述国家面对危机束手无策的一个重要原因是对民众投资的长期欠缺,因此阻碍普通民众从经济增长中收获好处。事实上,虽然几内亚、利比里亚和塞拉利昂经济在埃博拉病毒爆发前10年分别以2.8%、10%和8%的年均增速快速增长,但其民众的日常生活却鲜有改善迹象。超过65%的外国直接投资都流向了采掘和伐木业,上述行业一向因较少创造就业机会和导致财富向少数人集中而在人们的印象中臭名昭著。

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