El ejemplo de Timor Oriental

MANILA – Timor Oriental, conocido actualmente como Timor-Leste, es la democracia más nueva del mundo. Puede tener una población de menos de un millón de habitantes, pero tiene una historia heroica y una rica cultura construida a lo largo de siglos de influencias étnicas y coloniales distintas. La isla atrajo a los comerciantes chinos y malayos en el siglo XV. Los portugueses llegaron no mucho después y se quedaron 400 años. Ahora está recibiendo atención como un ejemplo de construcción nacional dirigido por Naciones Unidas.

La Misión Integrada de las Naciones Unidas en Timor-Leste (MINUTL), encabezada por Atul Khare, consiste de 1,568 civiles, de los cuales 334 son voluntarios, y un comisario de policía, Rodolfo Tor, con 1,623 policías de 39 países. La labor principal de la MINUTL es difícil: lograr la reconciliación nacional. Aunque el 30 de junio se celebraron elecciones parlamentarias pacíficas, desde entonces prevalece una atmósfera de ansiedad. Ni el partido que estaba en el gobierno, el Freitlin, ni el recientemente formado CNRT, dirigido por Xanana Gusmão, el héroe de la resistencia contra la ocupación de Indonesia, ganó una mayoría clara.

Al principio, la ONU, al igual que muchos timoreses, incluyendo a José Ramos-Horta, el presidente del país galardonado con el premio Nobel que ganó las elecciones de mayo pasado, habían esperado que se pudiera formar un gobierno de unidad nacional. Pero un intento para negociar un gobierno incluyente que duró un mes fracasó. Así, en agosto Ramos-Horta acabó con el impasse al nombrar primer ministro a Gusmão, un aliado político de mucho tiempo y ex presidente.

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