非洲悖论

巴黎—本月早些时候,帕斯卡·辛比康瓦(Pascal Simbikangwa)审判在巴黎开始。辛比康瓦被控参与了导致1994年4月—7月800,000人丧生的卢旺达种族灭绝。不幸的是,非洲的大规模杀戮仍然没有停止,特别是在博尔(Bor)市附近。法国对中非共和国的军事干涉并没有结束那里的社会间暴力。

然而奇怪的是,尽管非洲的社会间暴力一直存在,并且或许比世界其他地区更加严重,却扔不妨碍这个块大陆成为希望之光。事实上,极端暴力的持久存在与非洲有利的人口结构及其近几年来的经济——甚至政治和社会——进步形成了鲜明的对比。

解释这一悖论的一个思路是一段长达四个世纪的插曲的结束。自十七世纪以来,非洲一直主要作为一个历史客体(object of history)存在。非洲人民先是被当作奴隶像商品一样被贸易,成为其他地区的经济增长之源。接着,殖民势力人为地肆意瓜分这块大陆,打着冠冕堂皇的“文明化”的幌子极尽贪婪之能事。

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