Un événement en philosophie !

OXFORD – Un jugement moral peut-il être vrai ou faux ? Au fond, l'éthique est-elle purement subjective, chacun étant libre de choisir la sienne, ou dépend-elle de la société dans laquelle on vit ? On a peut-être maintenant la réponse.

Depuis les années 1930, les milieux de la philosophie ont abandonné l'idée que les jugements moraux sont des vérités objectives. Cette rupture est intervenue quand les positivistes logiques ont déclaré que puisqu'il n'y a aucun moyen de s'assurer de la véracité des jugements moraux, ces derniers reflètent simplement nos sentiments ou nos attitudes. Ainsi, si nous disons à quelqu'un, "Vous ne devriez pas battre cet enfant", tout ce que nous faisons est d'exprimer notre désapprobation devant cet acte ou d'essayer de l'arrêter. Il n'y a pas de vérité qui dise s'il est bien ou pas de battre un enfant.

Ce point de vue sur l'éthique est souvent contesté, mais une grande partie des arguments viennent de penseurs religieux qui en appellent aux commandements de Dieu, ce qui n'est guère convaincant aux yeux de la philosophie occidentale, essentiellement laïque. D'autres défenseurs de l'idée d'une vérité objective dans l'éthique n'en appellent pas à la religion, mais ne parviennent pas à remettre en cause le consensus philosophique majoritaire.

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