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Heute wird vielen Schwellenländern, von Indonesien bis Mexiko, ein bestimmter Verhaltenskodex vorgeschrieben, den sie einhalten müssen, wollen sie erfolgreich sein. Die Botschaft ist klar: dies ist, was fortschrittliche Industrieländern tun und getan haben. Wer dazugehören will, muss dasselbe tun. Die Reformen werden schmerzhaft sein, Interessengruppen werden sich dagegen wehren, aber mit genügend politischem Willen wird sich der Erfolg mit der Zeit einstellen.

Jedes Land stellt eine Liste auf, was getan werden muss und jede Regierung wird an ihrer Leistung gemessen. In allen Ländern steht ein ausgeglichener Haushalt und die Inflationskontrolle ganz oben auf der Liste, gefolgt von Strukturreformen. In Mexiko zum Beispiel gehört die Öffnung des Strommarktes, eine Aufgabe, die verfassungsmäßig der Regierung zufällt, zu den wichtigsten Reformforderungen des Westens. Analysten loben Mexiko also einerseits für die Fortschritte bei der Haushaltskontrolle und der Inflation und kritisieren das Land andererseits, man möchte fast sagen, ohne darüber nachzudenken, wegen des Stillstands bei der Stromreform.

Als jemand, der an der Wirtschaftspolitik in den USA beteiligt war, ist mir schon immer die große Kluft zwischen den Forderungen der USA an Entwicklungsländer und der Politik, die die USA selbst machen, aufgefallen. Und die USA stehen darin nicht allein: die meisten anderen erfolgreichen Entwicklungsländer oder entwickelten Länder verfolgen ähnlich widersprüchliche Strategien.

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