La inacción democrática en el Banco Mundial

James Wolfensohn, el Presidente del Banco Mundial, ha anunciado su intención de marcharse y se está buscando a un nuevo director para la organización multilateral más importante del mundo de entre las que fomentan el desarrollo. La elección resulta particularmente importante ahora, cuando por fin se está reconociendo que la pobreza del tercer mundo es nuestro mayor problema y también amenaza.

La designación del Banco Mundial como “banco” no expresa toda su importancia y sus múltiples funciones. Presta dinero, en efecto, a los países para emprender proyectos diversos y ayudarlos a sobrellevar las crisis (como, por ejemplo, los diez mil millones de dólares que facilitó a Corea en el período 1997-1998). Ha desempeñado –y desempeña- un papel decisivo en la reconstrucción posterior a los conflictos en todo el mundo.

Pero el Banco concede también donaciones y préstamos con bajo interés a los países más pobres, en particular para la educación y la salud, y los asesora sobre las estrategias para el desarrollo. Con frecuencia se ha unido al FMI para imponer por la fuerza a los países ese “asesoramiento”: si no lo hacen, no sólo se verán privados de la ayuda del FMI y del Banco Mundial, sino también de la de otros donantes y los mercados de capitales no tendrán motivos para facilitarles fondos.

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