La Démocratie n’est pas en marche à la Banque mondiale

James Wolfensohn, président de la Banque mondiale, a annoncé son intention de partir et la recherche d’un nouveau directeur pour l’organisation multilatérale la plus importante au monde pour la promotion du développement a commencé. Le choix est particulièrement important à l’heure actuelle, la pauvreté du Tiers-monde étant enfin reconnue comme notre plus gros problème et notre plus grand défi.

Désigner la Banque mondiale sous le terme de « banque » revient à sous-estimer son importance et les multiples facettes de ses rôles. Elle prête en effet des fonds aux nations désirant réaliser une grande variété de projets, ainsi que des fonds leur permettant de traverser certaines crises (comme les 10 milliards USD qu’elle prêta à la Corée en 1997-1998). elle a joué, et joue toujours, un rôle essentiel dans les reconstructions d’après-guerre dans le monde entier.

La Banque accorde également des subventions et des prêts à faible intérêt aux pays les plus pauvres, particulièrement pour l’éducation et la santé, et conseille ces pays sur les stratégies de développement. Elle a souvent rejoint le FMI pour forcer certains pays à accepter ses « conseils » : si ces pays n’acceptaient pas leurs conseils, ils seraient privés des fonds du FMI et de la Banque mondiale, ainsi que des fonds d’autres bailleurs de fonds, et les marchés des capitaux seraient ainsi peu tentés de leur fournir des fonds.

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