路障前的戴高乐

伦敦——今年恰巧是法国继拿破仑之后最伟大领袖的整数周年纪念高度集中的年度。 120年前查尔斯·戴高乐出生于里尔。 他在40年前一天傍晚玩纸牌游戏时因心脏病发作病逝于科隆贝双教堂村的家中。 70年前,他在1940年6月法国沦陷后乘飞机飞到伦敦,在BBC发表了那次著名的讲话,号召法国人民奋起抵抗纳粹的侵略。

今年同样面临着知名度远不那么高的周年纪念,当时戴高乐向世人展示了他集于一身的罕见的决心、政治技巧及演说能力,他正是凭借着这些与意志坚定的反对派直接对抗。 这是延续至今的第五共和国在创立过程中的核心时刻。

阿尔及利亚战争在促使戴高乐以67岁高龄于1958年重新掌权的过程中发挥了重要作用。尽管他的回忆录描绘了一幅深知自己意图的领袖人物的典型形象,但我为新传记所进行的研究工作却表明他针对地中海危机的政策实际是希望和挫折的融合。 他希望法国能够在军事上控制民族解放阵线(FLN),同时又因为极端混乱的政治局势和难以说服移民保持现状的选择行不通而感到懊丧。

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