Le système fonctionne

MEDFORD, MASSACHUSETTS – Alors que la nouvelle réunion des ministres des Finances du G-20 commence à Cairns, en Australie, la légion des pessimistes se fait entendre à nouveau. Leur sagesse conventionnelle veut que « le système » – les structures de gouvernance mondiale allant de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce au G-20 en passant par les grandes banques centrales – sont en très mauvais état et ont désespérément besoin d’être réparées. En réalité, l'ordre économique mondial a remarquablement bien fonctionné depuis 2008.

Certes, la première année de la Grande Récession a été plus sévère que la première année de la Grande Dépression. Mais, en dépit de ce choc initial, le système a répondu d'une manière étonnamment agile. Par rapport aux récessions mondiales précédentes déclenchées par une crise financière, l'économie mondiale a rebondi vigoureusement. Les niveaux de commerce et de production ont dépassé les niveaux d'avant la crise dans la plupart des pays depuis quelques années, et la pauvreté continue de diminuer rapidement.

Une des clés de ce rebond a été que, contrairement aux années 1930, l'économie mondiale a maintenu les conditions existantes : les barrières commerciales sont restées faibles, de même que les restrictions sur les investissements étrangers directs, et les échanges transfrontaliers ont continué à se propager grâce à l'Internet.

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