Staudammbau an Chinas Flüssen

Von allen Problemen, die es in China gibt, wird langfristig keins so entscheidend sein wie die Frage, wie es die Spannung zwischen wirtschaftlicher Entwicklung und dem Schutz der Umwelt löst. Nirgendwo sind die Konsequenzen dieses Ringens deutlicher als in den Ausläufern des Himalajas in der südwestlichen Provinz Yunnan.

Yunnan ist die Heimat dreier großer asiatischer Flüsse: des Mekong, des Salween (oder Nu) und des Jinsha. Alle entspringen dem großen tibetanischen Plateau und fließen nebeneinander durch den nordwestlichen Teil der Provinz nach Südostasien. Obwohl es sich um die letzten unberührten Flüsse Chinas handelt, sind diese nunmehr dafür vorgesehen, der Befriedigung des unersättlichen Energiehungers des Landes geopfert zu werden. Entlang ihrer gewundenen Flussläufe durch die Berge von Yunnan sollen Plänen zufolge Dutzende von Dämmen errichtet werden.

Als ich vor kurzem nördlich des Ortes Lijiang im Norden Yunnans eine Wanderung durch die atemberaubende Tigersprung-Schlucht unternahm, bekam ich Gelegenheit einen dieser Flüsse zu sehen – und den Standort, an dem einer der umstrittensten Dämme des Landes gebaut werden soll. Während sich der Jinsha, ein Zufluss des mächtigen Jangtse, seinen Weg vom Dach der Welt hinab bahnt, ergießt er sich auf seinem Weg nach Shanghai und zum Ostchinesischen Meer durch diese gut 16 Kilometer lange Schlucht. Falls, oder besser gesagt, wenn der Fluss gedämmt wird, wird er dazu beitragen, die Städte und Fabriken an der chinesischen Küste mit Energie zu versorgen.

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