¿Por qué Cuba se ha dado la vuelta?

CIUDAD DE MÉXICO – La liberación por el gobierno de Cuba del preso/espía/rehén estadounidense Alan Gross, y la  de los tres espías/héroes/agentes encubiertos cubanos en Estados Unidos, junto con los anuncios respectivos de Raúl Castro y Barak Obama, y su conversación telefónica de ayer, marcan el momento más importante en la historia de las relaciones de  Estados Unidos y la isla desde 1977. Como se recordará, ese año Jimmy Carter y Fidel Castro llegaron a varios acuerdos entre ambos gobiernos que permitieron la apertura de dos oficinas de intereses en cada capital. La intervención del Vaticano, y de Canadá, uno de los gobiernos más anti-castristas del mundo democrático, fue decisiva y asegura el cumplimiento de todas las etapas del acuerdo. La valentía de Barack Obama y de Raúl Castro garantizan lo demás.

No es el fin del embargo; eso solo lo puede cambiar el Congreso norteamericano. No es una normalización plena: habrá embajadas pero no embajadores. Pero sí es un avance notable: podrán viajar mas fácilmente los norteamericanos sin ascendencia cubana a La Habana; se liberarán las transacciones bancarias entre ambos países; algunos temas comerciales se abrirán; y Cuba será retirada de la lista de países que apoyan al terrorismo por el Departamento de Estado.

A primera vista, esto sugiere un gran triunfo cubano, una reculada y rectificación norteamericana, tardía pero bienvenida. Parece una confirmación de las posturas más pro-cubanas y anti-yanquis en América Latina. A cambio Cuba entrega muy poco: Gross, liberar a 53 presos políticos, permitir la entrada de observadores de la Cruz Roja Internacional y relatores de Derechos Humanos de Naciones Unidas (lo que pedimos nosotros hace catorce años) y la ampliación del acceso a Internet en la isla. No es gran cosa, en vista de lo obtenido: el restablecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas al cabo de más de medio siglo de ostracismo.

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