Cuban Car Andre Forget via ZUMA Wire

Los límites del capitalismo con características comunistas

NUEVA DELHI – En momentos en que el presidente norteamericano, Barack Obama, se apronta para iniciar una visita histórica a Cuba, el futuro de la isla gobernada por un régimen comunista es objeto de una especulación generalizada. Algunos observadores esperan que el giro en curso hacia el capitalismo, que ha venido ocurriendo muy gradualmente durante cinco años bajo la conducción de Raúl Castro, conduzca naturalmente a Cuba hacia la democracia. La experiencia sugiere lo contrario.

En verdad, la liberalización económica está lejos de ser una ruta infalible hacia la democracia. Nada lo ilustra mejor que la mayor y más antigua autocracia del mundo, China, donde el Partido Comunista Chino (PCC) mantiene su monopolio en el poder, a pesar de que la implementación de reformas pro-mercado ha permitido que su economía creciera. (Un beneficiario clave de este proceso ha sido el ejército chino).

La convicción de que de la mano del capitalismo automáticamente llega la democracia implica una conexión ideológica entre ambos. Pero el dominio del PCC -que actualmente se jacta de tener 88 millones de miembros, más que la población total de Alemania- ya no está arraigado en la ideología. El Partido, representado por una oligarquía sin demasiado comunicación con el mundo exterior, sobrevive gracias a una variedad de instrumentos -coercitivos, organizacionales y remunerativos- destinados a evitar el surgimiento de una oposición organizada.

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