Una Europa creativa

LIUBLIANA – En la reunión de primavera del Consejo Europeo, a realizarse el 13 y 14 de marzo, los estados miembros de la UE anunciarán el segundo ciclo de la Estrategia de Lisboa para el Crecimiento y el Empleo, iniciada en 2000 con el objetivo de convertir a la UE en la economía basada en el conocimiento más competitiva del mundo. Los resultados económicos actuales de la UE sugieren que la estrategia está funcionando, particularmente tras su renovación en 2005. Sin embargo, hay áreas que han sido poco tomadas en cuenta y en las que Europa podría lograr una ventana competitiva. Una de ellas es la creatividad.

La Estrategia de Lisboa debe mucho al economista austriaco Joseph Schumpeter, que afirmaba que las utilidades son el resultado de la innovación. Se trata de un equilibrio europeo adecuado entre la teoría de que las utilidades provienen de la explotación (Marx) y la vista de que son el resultado de transacciones que hacen que ambas partes queden más satisfechas que antes (Friedman). También es adecuado para una economía en que los bienes y servicios satisfacen las necesidades de las personas y en que los productos compiten en términos de sus características técnicas o funcionales.

Sin embargo, en las sociedades post-industriales los consumidores buscan en un producto más que sólo funcionalidad. Los europeos, relativamente prósperos, tienden no a comprar un automóvil meramente para ir del punto A al punto B, zapatos para mantener secos sus pies, un reloj para consultar la hora, o una botella de agua para saciar su sed. Compramos cosas que significan algo más para nosotros que el uso que les damos.

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