创意欧洲

卢布尔雅那—在3月13-14日欧盟委员会的春季会议上,欧盟成员国的领导人们会启动第二轮“增长与就业里斯本战略”。这项在2000年开始实施的战略行动旨在使欧洲成为世界上最具竞争力的经济体。欧盟目前的经济上升态势说明这一战略是有效的,特别是其在2005年重新生效之后。但有的可以使欧洲获得更强竞争力的领域却被忽略了。其中之一就是创意产业。

“里斯本战略”的成形在很大程度上要归功于奥地利经济学家Joseph Schumpeter,他的理念是利润源自创新。这是关于利润的两大学说的欧洲式合理折衷,即:利润来自于剥削(马克思)和利润源自使交易双方都比执行交易以前更幸福的交易(弗里德曼)。这对一种以商品和服务满足人们的需求和产品在技术和功能上彼此竞争的经济同样适用。

但在后工业化的社会,消费者对产品的要求不仅仅是功能性。相对富足的欧洲人不会买一辆车只是为了从A点开到B点;买一双鞋业仅是为了不湿脚;买一只表只是为了看时间或买一瓶水只是为了解渴。我们买的东西除了使用功能外还有别的意义。

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