Asesoramiento conyugal para los Estados Unidos y China

BEIJING – No cabe la menor duda de que China se ha beneficiado del sistema mundial creado y apoyado por los Estados Unidos. De hecho, el viaje de Richard Nixon a China en 1972 abrió la puerta para que este país regresara a la comunidad internacional.

La mayor parte de los dos decenios siguientes fueron una luna de miel para las relaciones chino-americanas. En el frente económico, los EE.UU. no sólo concedieron a China la condición comercial de nación más favorecida, sino que, además, toleraron la concepción mercantilista del comercio internacional y las finanzas, sobre todo su régimen dual de tipos de cambio. En el decenio de 1990, siguieron ampliándose los vínculos económicos bilaterales. El apoyo americano a la integración de China en el sistema mundial llegó a su culminación con la adhesión del país a la Organización Mundial del Comercio en 2001. Desde entonces, las exportaciones de China se han multiplicado por cinco.

Naturalmente, la insuficiente protección por parte de China de la propiedad intelectual ha perjudicado a las relaciones (deficiencia que puede ser más perjudicial para las empresas chinas que para las americanas al disuadir a aquéllas –y a las de otros países avanzados– de desplegar nuevas tecnologías en China) y también ha afectado negativamente a las relaciones el papel de las empresas chinas de propiedad estatal y el apoyo oficial chino a los “adalides [tecnológicos] nacionales” (empresas privilegiadas que casi con toda seguridad usan el dinero estatal despreocupadamente).

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