Le contrôle de la télévision chinoise

Dans le classement mondial de la liberté de la presse 2003 publié par l'association Reporters sans frontières, la Chine occupe la 161e place sur 166 pays, quelque part entre l'Iran et la Corée du Nord. Pourtant, le régime à la télévision chinoise ne se compose plus des mélodrames pudibonds et des programmes d'endoctrinement maladroits du passé maoïste. A première vue, l'apparition de sexe, de crime, de drogue ou de violence, et de jeux semble indiquer la suppression de la plupart des entraves.

Bien entendu, cette impression s'efface si l'on se concentre sur les messages politiques explicites. Les points de vue qui s'écartent de quelque façon de la doctrine du Parti sont toujours inexistants. Au-delà de l'apparente diversité de la programmation, le contrôle monolithique du discours politique a peu changé depuis les années 50.

Néanmoins, le volume considérable d'émissions rend le maintien de ce contrôle difficile. Le groupe China Central Television (CCTV) compte à lui seul 12 chaînes (dont beaucoup diffusent 24 heures sur 24) et environ 3 000 employés. CCTV relève du Service de la Propagande et du ministère de la Radio, du Film et de la Télévision. De nombreuses chaînes provinciales et municipales sont aussi obligées de diffuser certains programmes de CCTV. Il s'agit donc d'une tâche administrative de très grande ampleur. Au vu du nombre colossal d'émissions nécessaire pour remplir toutes les tranches horaires, le contrôle du contenu doit être des plus efficaces.

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