Paul Lachine

外交政策的正确内涵

美国剑桥—一些批评家批评美国总统奥巴马竞选时口号颇具鼓动性(inspirational),还提出了“弯曲历史之弓”的雄心,当选后却表现得事务(transactional)而现实(pragmatic)。但是,在这方面,奥巴马并不是绝无仅有的。

很多领导然在职业生涯中会改变他们的目标和风格。历史上最伟大的变革型(transformational)领袖——俾斯麦在实现普鲁士领导下的德国统一后变得渐进(incremental)而现实导向。类似地,富兰克林·罗斯福的外交政策目标和风格在其第一个任期内是温和而渐进的,但在1938年认定希特勒代表了外部威胁后成为变革型。

事务型领导在稳定而可预测的环境中更加有效,而鼓动风格更可能在快速而间断的社会和政治变化时期中出现。像印度的甘地和南非的曼德拉这样的具有变革型目标和鼓动型风格的领袖可以极大地影响不稳定的政治环境所产生的结果,特别是在制度性约束结构薄弱的发展中国家中。

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