Rich people in the Hamptons Spencer Platt/Getty Images

Комплексность неравенства

МЮНХЕН – Начиная с 2013 года, когда Томас Пикетти опубликовал свое широко обсуждавшееся исследование о распределении доходов и благосостояния, неравенство стало актуальным вопросом общественной полемики в наиболее экономически развитых странах, причем его винят во всем – от медленного экономического развития и застоя в производительности труда до роста популизма и голосования за Брексит. Однако до сих пор не существует четкого определения неравенства, его эффекты крайне изменчивы и его причины остаются темой горячих споров.

Практически невозможно ответить даже на основной вопрос: какой уровень неравенства считается слишком высоким? «Естественные нормы неравенства», характеризующие равновесие экономики, и целевой уровень, которого могут стремиться достичь лица, определяющие политику, отсутствуют. Вместо этого уровни неравенства в каждой стране сравниваются друг с другом – ограниченный подход, который игнорирует все – от экономических тенденций в широком понимании до различного влияния неравенства имущественного положения на население в обществах с разной социальной средой.

В то время, когда, как иногда кажется, каждый выражает недовольство неравенством, благосостояние на глобальном уровне распространяется шире, чем когда-либо ранее. Только не протяжении последних 16 лет количество людей, которые соответствуют требованиям для включения в мировой средний класс ‑ при сегодняшнем уровне доходов, количество людей с чистыми финансовыми активами 7000-42 000 евро (7400-44 600 долларов США), увеличилось более чем в два раза до примерно одного миллиарда человек или около 20% мирового населения.

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