冷战经验布什可资汲取

        布什总统最近把当前反对暴力化的圣战恐怖主义斗争同冷战相提并论。在一个方面他是正确的,那就是恐怖主义之潮是跨越年代的。不幸的是,像冷战一样,当前的“反恐战争”恐怕不是几年,而是几十年才能结束的。

        但是,布什在他的比喻当中错过了一个隐含的经验,那就是使用文化的柔性力量的重要性。冷战是通过威慑苏联侵略的军事力量以及引人入胜的西方文化和观念的力量相结合而赢得的。当1989年柏林墙倒塌时,是锤子和推土机,而非弹药将它推倒。不幸的是,布什并未汲取这一经验。

        冷战期间的学术和科技交流在提升美国的柔性力量上发挥了重要作用。一些美国的怀疑论派者担心苏联科学家和克格勃间谍会盗取美国技术,但是他们却并没有注意到,苏联的访客们将科学机密连同政治观念一道吸纳进去。这些科学家中的许多人成为苏联主要的人权和自由化鼓吹者。

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