Promouvoir la sécurité en Asie

TOKYO – L’annonce faite par le président Barack Obama à la fin de l’an dernier au sujet du renforcement de la présence américaine en Asie de l’Est, accompagné d’une réduction des contingents en Europe, n’était en rien surprenante. Après tout, l’environnement de sécurité en Asie de l’Est est imprévisible et changeant, contrairement à celui de l’Europe qui est relativement stable. Dans ce contexte, les efforts actuels pour établir un cadre multilatéral global pour la région peuvent s’inspirer de l’histoire récente de l’Organisation pour la sécurité et la coopération en Europe (OSCE).

Les Etats-Unis ne sont pas les seuls à mettre davantage l’accent sur les questions de sécurité en Asie de l’Est. La décision prise par le président russe Vladimir Poutine d’accueillir pour la première fois une réunion de la Coopération économique pour l’Asie-Pacifique (APEC) à Vladivostok en septembre prochain reflète l’intérêt croissant de son pays pour la région. Et comme les Etats-Unis, la Russie a participé en novembre dernier au Sommet de l’Asie de l’Est (EAS).

L’EAS, ainsi que les réunions ministérielles du Forum régional de l’ASEAN (ARF) en juillet dernier, ont débouché sur des contributions importantes pour améliorer la sécurité de la région. L’approche adoptée par l’ARF pour mettre en place des relations plus prévisibles et constructives entre les pays de la région Asie-Pacifique repose sur trois piliers : les mesures d’instauration de la confiance, la diplomatie préventive et la résolution de conflits. Lors de la 18e conférence ministérielle l’an dernier, l’ARF a abordé la deuxième étape, la diplomatie préventive, tout en continuant à renforcer les mesures en vue d’instaurer la confiance.

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