Le jour du drone

LONDRES – Les drones, semble-t-il, ont soudainement envahi le monde. Ils étaient au cœur de l'intrigue de thrillers télévisés américains comme 24 et Homeland, ont été présentés comme une option de livraison possible par le géant de la distribution en ligne Amazon.com, sont intervenus dans les zones sinistrées en Haïti et aux Philippines, et ont survolé de manière menaçante les centrales nucléaires françaises. Cette technologie autrefois secrète est devenue quasiment omniprésente.

Alors que les décideurs politiques aux États-Unis et en Europe se sont engagés à ouvrir l'espace aérien civil aux drones non-militaires, l'avion sans pilote va devenir de plus en plus fréquent. Il est donc crucial que les défis sans précédent qu'il présente pour les libertés civiles et la vie privée soient rapidement identifiés et solutionnés.

Tout d’abord, les drones sont en train de changer de façon significative la façon dont les données sont collectées. Jusqu'à présent, la plupart des drones civils ont été équipés uniquement avec des caméras haute résolution, offrant aux policiers, équipes de recherche et de sauvetage, journalistes, cinéastes et inspecteurs agricoles et d'infrastructure une vue d'ensemble de leur environnement. Mais cela est sur le point de changer. Les fabricants font des expériences avec des drones qui peuvent recueillir des images thermiques, fournir des services de télécommunications, prendre des mesures environnementales et même lire et analyser des données biométriques. En outre, certains opérateurs se sont intéressés à la collecte de « big data », en utilisant une gamme de capteurs différents en même temps.

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