Christopher R. Hill, Iraq’s Sectarian Nightmare, sunni arab states shia majority in iraq  and the rise of ISIS UN photo/Rick Bajornas

Le cauchemar sectaire de l’Irak

DENVER – Avec ce qui ressemble à une conquête des provinces du nord-ouest de l’Irak – et d’autres pourraient aussi tomber – par le très militant Etat Islamique en Irak et au Levant (EIIL), l’histoire troublée du pays vient d’ouvrir un nouveau chapitre terrifiant. En à peine quelques jours, les combattants de l’EIIL se sont emparés des provinces d’Al-anbar, Ninive, et Salahudddin – une victoire qui atteste de l’absence d’autorité du gouvernement central dans ces provinces à majorité sunnites. Et compte tenu de l’idéologie djihadiste de l’EIIL, il est peu probable que s’opère une « conscientisation sunnite » – la panacée supposée à tous les maux de la culture politique sectaire de l’Irak.

L’EIIL n’est pas un groupe réceptif au dialogue. Ses responsables adhèrent à la vision, qui résonne aux quatre coins du monde arabe sunnite, selon laquelle les musulmans shiites sont des apostats et des traitres à l’Islam qui doivent être considérés comme les pires du pire (aux côtés d’Israël et des Etats-Unis). Cela signifie que les Etats-Unis doivent à la fois répondre militairement à l’EIIL et politiquement au-delà de l’Irak. Il est surtout nécessaire d’adopter une approche régionale face à la rivalité montante entre sunnites et shiites.

Il est bon de se rappeler que le péché originel de l’occupation de l’Irak menée par les Etats-Unis il y a onze ans était une campagne de « dé-baathification » – la purge de toute personne entretenant des liens avec le parti Baath de Saddam Hussein. Cette décision a été prise dans l’année qui a suivi l’invasion de 2003, lorsque l’Irak était entièrement sous la férule américaine : les responsables irakiens, qu’ils soient sunnites ou shiites, n’avaient pas vraiment grand chose à voir là-dedans.

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