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十字路口的国企

香港—最近,有关国企改革问题,出现了一些批评意见,特别是针对强化党委在国企管理中的角色的提法。尽管这看似是中国市场经济改革的一步后退,加强对国企的监督实在很有必要,至少目前是如此。中国正在经历一个根本性的转型,其目标是以创新为驱动、以知识为基础、靠服务拉动的新的经济发展模式。中国领导人此刻必须仔细思索如何改革国有企业,使其能够继续为新经济做贡献。

在过去,国企的角色是明确的。在过去三十年中,它们是中国基础设施建设繁荣的先锋,为中国崛起成为全球制造业强国构筑了基础。在此过程中,它们成为中国经济的一个主导力量,特别是在自然垄断行业(如通讯和电力)和关键战略性行业(如钢铁、煤炭和银行)。

但以国有企业为主导力量的传统单边市场目前正受到阿里巴巴和腾讯等新技术企业的冲击。后者通过具有规模经济的统一大平台,横跨多边的产品、物流和分销等市场。这些企业通过同时为消费者和小企业打造平台——从根本上说,它们也是在提供一个公共基础设施——直接对国企的传统业务模式构成挑战。

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