亚洲的筑坝水霸权

新德里—好像为了强调亚洲最大挑战乃是如何应对日渐专横的中国的崛起似的,中国政府披露了在流向他国的大河上建设新大坝的计划。中国国务院无视下游国家的忧虑,决定单方面行动,这表明亚洲面临的主要问题不再是做好适应中国崛起的准备,而是需要说服中国领导人将与邻国合作制度化。

中国是亚洲地缘政治中心,与20个国家海陆相邻;因此,没有中国的参与,就不可能建立基于规则的地区秩序。那么,如何让中国入局呢?

这一挑战在亚洲跨国河流问题上特别突出。中国拥有众多国际大河的上游(主要在青藏高原和新疆),因此握有地区水霸权,而中国也在着手通过大坝、水库、堰堤、灌溉网和其他构造改造跨国河流,这是其他大洲所没有的现象。中国——它比任何其他水霸权国家都拥有更多的跨国河流水路——的建坝关注点已经从内河(已经建满了大坝)转向国际河流,其建坝数量比其他国家的总和还要多。

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