La próxima transformación de China

HONG KONG - A lo largo de tres décadas de condiciones económicas mundiales favorables, China fue capaz de crear un sistema integrado de producción global sin precedentes en escala y complejidad. Pero ahora sus autoridades deben lidiar con el triple desafío de la crisis de la deuda europea, la lenta recuperación en Estados Unidos y una desaceleración del crecimiento de su propia economía. Los tres retos están interconectados, y un error por parte de cualquiera de los protagonistas podría sumir a la economía mundial en otra recesión.

Para evaluar los riesgos y las opciones para China y el mundo, es preciso entender el sistema de producción "Hecho en el Mundo" de China, que se basa en cuatro pilares diferentes pero mutuamente dependientes.

El primero de ellos, en que China es la "fábrica del mundo", fue creado en gran parte por las corporaciones multinacionales extranjeras y sus proveedores y subcontratistas, y las tareas de elaboración y montaje, con alto uso de mano de obra, eran realizadas por empresas pequeñas y medianas (PYMEs) con acceso directo a los mercados globales a través de una compleja red de contratos. Con modestos comienzos en áreas costeras y zonas económicas especiales, su cadena de suministro se ha extendido por toda China, fabricando todo tipo de productos, desde peluches hasta iPads.

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