La deuda verde de China

Durante una década, el mundo se preguntó cuándo los líderes de China reconocerían la asombrosa crisis ambiental que enfrentaba su país. Este año, obtuvimos una respuesta: un nuevo Plan Quinquenal que hace de la protección del medio ambiente una prioridad. A continuación se desató una tormenta de propaganda verde y el gobierno hoy habla de usar el “PBI verde” para medir el desarrollo. Ahora bien, ¿toda esta charla se traducirá en un progreso real?

Si bien el gobierno central admite parte de la degradación ambiental causada por el rápido crecimiento económico, el paisaje que describe es incompleto. Consideremos el “PBI verde”. Esta primavera, la Administración Estatal de Protección del Medio Ambiente produjo la primera estimación oficial del PBI del país en términos de pérdidas ambientales. Según estos cálculos, costaría 84.000 millones de dólares limpiar la contaminación producida en 2004, o el 3% del PBI correspondiente a ese año. Pero estimaciones más realistas ubican el daño ambiental entre el 8% y el 13% del crecimiento anual del PBI de China, lo que significa que China perdió casi todo lo que ganó desde fines de los años 70 a manos de la contaminación.

Los problemas ambientales de China, tan complejos como pueden ser las causas, en definitiva pueden atribuirse a cómo entendemos el marxismo. Durante gran parte de nuestra historia reciente, vimos en el marxismo sólo una filosofía de lucha de clases. Creíamos que el desarrollo económico solucionaría todos nuestros problemas. En el período de reformas, esta lectura errónea de Marx se convirtió en una búsqueda irrestricta de ganancias materiales desprovista de toda moralidad. Se ignoró por completo la cultura tradicional china, con su énfasis en la armonía entre los seres humanos y la naturaleza.

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