Новая экономическая система Китая

В основном, все согласны с тем, что впечатляющие экономические достижения Китая за последние три десятилетия в большой степени являются результатом радикальной реформы его экономической системы. В то время, как частные фирмы практически отсутствовали, когда эти реформы начинались, сегодня они составляют около 60% от общего объёма производства.

Однако частная собственность – это лишь один из аспектов экономической системы. Экономическая система Китая изменилась так же сильно в других отношениях. Принятие решений об объёме потребления и производства во многом перестало быть централизованным и стало правом семей и фирм, соответственно; экономическая инициатива, рынки, конкуренция и интернационализация в значительной степени заменили командные, административные процессы, монополию и автаркию. В общем, период реформ в Китае стал яркой современной иллюстрацией известного исторического урока: свобода индивидуальной инициативы стимулирует экономическое развитие.

Как же, в таком случае, следует охарактеризовать сегодняшнюю китайскую экономику? Некоторые наблюдатели описывают текущую экономическую систему Китая как «государственный капитализм», другие (включая китайские власти) называют её «рыночным социализмом». Оба эти ярлыка неверны. Первый – потому что в производстве преобладают частные фирмы, второй – потому что «социализм» обычно не полагается на сильную экономическую инициативу и конкуренцию, которые являются главными движущими силами современной экономики Китая.

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