Barrie Maguire

Le choix de la Chine en Corée du Nord

TOKYO – Si le moment le plus dangereux dans une dictature est lorsqu’elle commence à entreprendre des réformes, la Corée du Nord semble prête à couper le cou à ce truisme. Ses récents bombardements de la Corée du Sud suggèrent que la défaillante dynastie Kim pourrait bien mettre le feu à l’Asie du sud-est plutôt que d’entreprendre de sérieuses réformes. Si la paix est réellement une composante clé de l’ascension de la Chine, alors les Chinois doivent désormais maîtriser leur lunatique client.

Essayer de comprendre le « Royaume Ermite » revient à regarder dans un trou noir. Certains voient dans le pilonnage de l’île sud-coréenne de Yeonpyeong une manouvre pour détourner l’attention des Nord-Coréens de l’effondrement économique de leur pays, ou peut-être du décès imminent de leur « Cher Dirigeant, » Kim Jong-il, ou pour créer une pseudo-image de dirigeant militaire au fils de Kim et prétendu héritier, son fils de quelques 27 ans, le « Jeune Général » Kim Jong-un. D’autres ne voient dans cette attaque qu’une provocation supplémentaire à rajouter à une longue liste et qui ne devrait donc pas être prise autant au sérieux.  

Hwang Jang-yop, l’ancien chef idéologue de la Corée du Nord et son plus ancien transfuge au Sud, décrit la Corée du Nord comme un mélange de « socialisme, de féodalisme moderne et de militarisme. » Une combinaison qui s’est avérée être mortelle. On estime qu’environ 1,5 million des 23 millions de citoyens Nord-Coréens sont morts de faim au cours de la dernière décennie. La famine reste très répandue, même si elle n’est plus aussi terrible qu’il y a deux ans. La ration quotidienne moyenne est de 150 à 300 grammes de maïs ou de riz (l’équivalent d’environ quatre tranches de pain sec) en fonction des régions. Il est encore souvent difficile de trouver de la nourriture dans les zones rurales.

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