China labourors Kevin Frayer/Stringer/Getty Images

La verdad sobre los índices de desempleo de China

SHANGHÁI – Desde 2002, la economía china ha experimentado cambios significativos, entre ellos el paso de la aceleración a la desaceleración del crecimiento del PGB. Sin embargo, la tasa de desempleo urbano, emitida conjuntamente por la Oficina Nacional de Estadísticas (NBS) y el Departamento de Trabajo de Seguridad Social, se ha mantenido notablemente estable, entre un 4 y un 4,1%. Por decir lo menos, resulta una cifra sorprendente que ha llevado a muchos a preguntarse si la NBS podría estar falseando las estadísticas.

La NBD no miente; simplemente carece de datos. El índice de desempleo que señala refleja la cantidad de miembros de la población urbana registrada que han informado al gobierno que reciben beneficios de desempleo. Sin embargo, a diferencia de los países desarrollados, la fragmentaria cobertura del seguro de desempleo en China, así como lo poco desarrollados  que están los programas de desempleo, desincentivan la búsqueda de ayuda por parte de las personas y distorsionan bastante las cifras de la NBS.

El gobierno chino ha adoptado medidas para remediarlo, llevando a cabo estudios sobre el desempleo urbano. Sin embargo, estas estadísticas todavía están pendientes de publicación a pesar de que llevar ya una década.

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