China government meeting Sri Lanka Mahinda Rajapaksa/Flickr

La Nueva Ruta de la Seda: un gran desafío

MADRID – El ascenso de China ha sido, probablemente, el hecho de mayor relevancia geoestratégica en las últimas dos décadas. Sin embargo, Occidente no ha acomodado a China, ni al resto de emergentes, en los esquemas de gobernanza global conforme a su peso geopolítico y económico.

La expansión de la presencia china en Asia, África y América Latina ha estado marcada por relaciones estrictamente bilaterales e inversión en infraestructuras, con la intención principal de obtener a cambio materias primas. Además, esta estrategia ha sido ejecutada por empresas estatales, en muchos casos sin tener en cuenta algunos estándares internacionales. Así, gracias a sus 3,8 billones de dólares en reservas de divisas, China se ha erigido en el principal proveedor de financiación a nivel mundial de los países en desarrollo. El Banco de Desarrollo de China, de hecho, ya concede más préstamos que el propio Banco Mundial.

Occidente, desde hace ya tiempo, ha instado a Beijing a cambiar este modelo de diplomacia financiera bilateral por un enfoque multilateral más acorde con sus estándares. Estamos ya acostumbrados a escuchar que China debería implicarse más en la provisión de bienes públicos globales. El Presidente Obama llegó, incluso, a acusar a Beijing de free rider o polizón. Con la llegada de Xi al poder parece que ese momento de cambio ha llegado, como demuestran sus recientes iniciativas en política exterior.

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