Chinese parliament Feng Li/Getty Images

Las misteriosas estadísticas de inversión de la China

SHANGHÁI  – La exactitud de la información oficial sobre el PIB y las tasas de crecimiento de China ha sido tema de acalorada discusión durante mucho tiempo, y la detención en enero pasado de Wang Baoan, el director de la Oficina Nacional de Estadísticas del país, por cargos de corrupción intensificó las dudas sobre la probidad de la agencia. Sin embargo, de alguna manera, las estadísticas oficiales de inversión de la China  se escaparon, en gran medida, de ser parte de dicha discusión.

De acuerdo con la Oficina Nacional de Estadísticas de China (ONE), la formación de capital fijo (el aumento neto en activos fijos) durante los últimos años, en promedio, se ha situado aproximadamente en el 46% del PIB. Esta cifra es mucho más alta que el promedio mundial que está en alrededor del 22%; sin embargo, también es significativamente más baja que el promedio de las cifras proporcionadas por las provincias de China. En el año 2012, por ejemplo, casi la mitad de las provincias reportaron tasas del PIB representativas de la formación de capital de más del 60%; seis superaron el 80%.

Uno supondría que las cifras nacionales de formación de capital se basan en informes locales – entre otras cosas porque, hasta la instauración de reformas recientes, la ONE no recopilaba datos de forma independiente. Además, las cifras básicas de inversión de la ONE – es decir, las inversiones totales en activos fijos, cifras de la cuales derivan las tasas de formación de capital fijo – reflejan el total de las cifras provinciales.

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