Liu Zhijun china railway minister Fan Rujun/ZumaPress

China: ¿corrupción o crecimiento?

BEIJING – La campaña anticorrupción lanzada por el presidente chino Xi Jinping, que ya se cobró a muchos “tigres” de alto nivel en el gobierno, se promociona como un componente fundamental de las reformas estructurales que China necesita para crear una economía de mercado más sostenible e inclusiva. Pero muchos temen que en un país donde la actuación de los funcionarios públicos es muy importante para el crecimiento económico, eliminar la corrupción atente contra la prosperidad.

Algunos mencionan los problemas recientes de restoranes y hoteles de lujo (que en China, dependen en gran medida del gasto oficial) como prueba de que la campaña anticorrupción desalienta actividades favorables al crecimiento. Pero es probable que la caída sea temporal y que, tras un período de ajuste, aparezcan nuevos clientes.

Una causa de inquietud más creíble es que los intentos de terminar con la corrupción puedan quitar a los funcionarios públicos incentivos para promover el crecimiento. Al fin y al cabo, a gran crecimiento, grandes rentas, que los funcionarios pueden derivar mediante prácticas corruptas hacia sí mismos y hacia sus protegidos y amigos. Según este razonamiento, al eliminar estas prácticas, los funcionarios ya no podrán sacar provecho del crecimiento económico y no tendrán tantos motivos para alentarlo.

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