Dvě inovativní ekonomiky

HONGKONG – Technologické inovace táhnou už 250 let kupředu hospodářský rozvoj. Ekonomie inovací je však diametrálně odlišná pro ty, kdo jsou v popředí, a pro ty, kdo se jen ze všech sil snaží dohnat náskok.

V popředí začíná inovativní ekonomika objevem a vrcholí spekulací. Od vědeckého výzkumu až po identifikaci komerčních aplikací nových technologií se pokrok realizuje metodou pokus-omyl. Strategické technologie, které opakovaně přetvářely tržní ekonomiku – od železnice po internet –, vždy vyžadovaly vybudování sítí, hodnota jejichž užívání nemohla být v době jejich zavádění známá.

V důsledku toho jsou inovace v popředí závislé na zdrojích financování, které jsou odtržené od starostí o ekonomickou hodnotu; proto nelze tento problém omezit na otázku optimální alokace zdrojů. Konvenční výrobní funkce neoklasické ekonomie tudíž nabízí nebezpečně zavádějící optiku výkladu procesů, k nimž dochází v popředí inovací.

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