Chilean President Michelle Bachelet Pool Laurie Dieffembacq/ZumaPress

智利的不确定未来

发自剑桥 ——当我在本月初访问智利时,印象最深的莫过于长期自由市场政策为这个国家所带来的切实提升与其左派总统米切尔·巴切莱特(Michelle Bachelet)当前议程之间的反差。而如何消除这种反差将极为重要,不仅关乎该国1700万国民的福祉,还将影响到那些将智利视为合理经济政策成功典范的人们。

智利是南美洲经济表现最强的国家。按购买力平价计算人均GDP超过2.2万美元,高于阿根廷,巴西和墨西哥。因此智利不出意料地被视为发达国家——也是经合组织在南美的唯一成员国。

铜是智利的主要产品,占其出口的半壁江山。政府下属的Codelco公司是全球最大的铜生产商,也是智利唯一的公营企业。该公司的营收会随全球铜价波动而变化,因此政府收入也会在某些年份走高或者下跌——比如今年这种下跌市。政府遵循一个明智的财政策略,当预算因高铜价而出现盈余时就将多余的钱存入国家稳定基金。

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